Mechanical properties of multi-year sea ice testing techniques by Malcolm Mellor

Cover of: Mechanical properties of multi-year sea ice | Malcolm Mellor

Published by US Army Corps of Engineers, Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory in [Hanover, N.H.] .

Written in English

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Subjects:

  • Ice on rivers, lakes, etc. -- Beaufort Sea.,
  • Sea ice -- Beaufort Sea.

Edition Notes

Book details

StatementM. Mellor, G.F.N. Cox and H. Bosworth.
SeriesCRREL report -- 84-8.
ContributionsCox, G. F. N., Bosworth, H., Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
The Physical Object
Paginationiv, 39 p. :
Number of Pages39
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL17830914M

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Additional Physical Format: Online version: Mellor, Malcolm. Mechanical properties of multi-year sea ice. [Hanover, N.H.]: US Army Corps of Engineers, Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory, [].

Mechanical properties of multi-year sea ice. [Hanover, N.H.]: US Army Corps of Engineers, Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory, [] (OCoLC) Material Type: Government publication, National government publication: Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: G F N Cox; Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory.

The effects of ice temperature, porosity, structure, strain rate, confining pressure and sample orientation on the mechanical properties of multi-year sea ice. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MULTI-YEAR SEA ICE TRIAXIAL TESTS STATUS REPORT May, Introduction During the analysis of the Phase II triaxial test data it was found that the confined initial tangent modulus data of the ice were consistently lower than the initial tangent modulus data of the uniaxial or unconfined specimens.

Engineering Properties of Sea Ice Article (PDF Available) in Journal of Glaciology 19(81) January with 1, Reads How we measure 'reads'. The paper outlines these properties for both first-year sea ice and Old Ice (i.e. second-year and multi-year sea ice).

Although some properties are reasonably well understood (microstructure, salinity, flexural strength, compressive strength, and elastic modulus), others are not. Knowledge of Old Ice is particularly by: The mechanical properties of a single crystal can be described as a deck of cards with bad glue between the cards.

It is simple to shear the deck but it can take high compressive load. For ice with many crystals (polycrystalline ice) the mechanical behaviour can be deduced from single crystal orientation. Now reliable data exist on the tensile and compressive strengths of first-year and multi-year sea ice.

Compressive strengths obtained from field testing of large specimens (6 × 3 × 2 m thick) were found to be within 30% of the strengths obtained from small samples tested in laboratory at the same temperature and strain rate as found in the by: 2.

A summary of the strength and modulus of ice samples from multi-year pressure ridges. The ice sheet consisted of fine-grained granular ice at the top surface layer and columnar grains below it. The grain size was less than 1 mm for the granular ice and the columnar ice grain size increased linearly with the depth from about 1 mm just beneath the transition zone to about 13 mm at the bottom by:   Since the start of the 21st century, most ice has melted in the southern arm of the gyre, allowing much less multiyear ice to form.

The Fram Strait, however, continues to serve as a sea ice exit ramp out of the ocean basin. In Marchsea ice that had survived at least four summers comprised 33 percent of the Arctic ice pack at the winter.

This review deals with properties of sea ice that are relevant to mechanical behavior on a fairly small scale. The main concern is with polycrystalline ice that is more or less intact. This sets the lower limit of scale not far below m, and the upper limit around 10 by: Sea Ice: Physics and Remote Sensing addresses experiences acquired mainly in Canada by researchers in the fields of ice physics and growth history in relation to its polycrystalline structure as well as ice parameters retrieval from remote sensing observations.

The volume describes processes operating at the macro- and microscale (e.g., brine entrapment in sea ice. The primary goal of this thesis is to utilize acoustical radiation from the Arctic ice cover to infer the response of sea ice to environmental forcing, and to sense remotely the mechanical properties of the ice.

The work makes use of two experiments in the Canadian arctic undertaken by the Ocean Acoustics Group of the Institute of Ocean Sciences, which resulted in an extensive body of Cited by: 3. Abstract. Information on the physical properties of the ice cover of the Nordic Seas has been largely lacking.

Therefore this chapter reviews what little is Cited by: Arctic ice island and sea ice movements and mechanical properties. First quarterly report, October 1-Decem Technical Report Sackinger, W. ; Stringer, W. version was used to conduct the majority of the tests in the Mechanical Properties of Multi-Year Sea Ice Program (2,3).

Linear ball bushings were included in the Mark II version to eliminate the racking and binding problems. The capacity of the cell was also increased by using. Regarding young multi-year ice.

The matter of how mariners should treat late-summer sea ice that is shown as ‘old ice’ on ice charts, but looks different from “traditional” multi-year ice, is challenging. Ice fitting this description has been encountered in the Arctic Basin and in the Canadian Arctic by: 3.

Multi-year ice crystalline structure Aging processes in sea ice. Sea Ice mechanics Test techniques for determining mechanical properties of ice Elastic properties Modeling Elasticity of PolycrystallineSea Ice Rheology Tensile and compressive strength Modeling aspects of ice strength.

Remote Sensing of Sea. Snow comprises individual ice crystals that grow while suspended in the atmosphere—usually within clouds—and then fall, accumulating on the ground where they undergo further changes. It consists of frozen crystalline water throughout its life cycle, starting when, under suitable conditions, the ice crystals form in the atmosphere, increase to millimeter size, precipitate and Compressive strength (σ): 3–7 MPa.

Arctic sea ice extent in March averaged million square kilometers ( million square miles). This iskilometers (, square miles) below the to average extent, andsquare kilometers (, square miles) above the record low for the month, which happened in Characterizing the seasonal cycle of upper-ocean flows under multi-year sea ice Jean A.

Mensa ∗, M.-L. Timmermans Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, Whitney Ave, New Haven CTUSA a r t i c l e i n f o Article Observationshistory: Arctic Received 18 September Revised 7 March Accepted 18 March Sea ice is a complex composite composed primarily of pure ice in various states of crystallization along with air bubbles and included pockets of tanding its growth processes is important both for climate scientists for use in simulations as well remote sensing specialists since the composition and microstructural properties of the ice ultimately affect how it interacts with.

First Year Or Multi Year Ice First year sea ice is becoming more prominent near Barrow, Alaska, while multi year sea ice declines.

Hear about ice trends from the perspectives of a scientist and of a local whale hunter in this video by Frontier Scientists. In early Septembersix medium-sized sea ice ridges were investigated in the Fram Strait as part of the fourth year of a field study of multi-year ice ridges.

The geometry and macroporosity were examined by cross-sectional drillings. The largest depth recorded was m, and the highest sail measured was m. 44 Responses to Extent Of Multi-Year Sea Ice At Ten Year High.

Stewart Pid says: March 9, at pm. There is a difference between multi year ice which is mostly 1 year old and under 2m thick (now) and multi year ice 2, 3, 5 and more years old and 5m thick (the good old days) Reply.

Close-up photograph of sea ice floes in the Bering Sea, between Alaska and Siberia, in February Sea ice floes in Alaska that look like flat sheets of ice and snow floating in the sea.

Note the small rims around the edges of many of the floes. These rims form as the ice floes jostle against each other, moved by winds, waves, and currents.

RESEARCH ARTICLE /JC Influence of ice thickness and surface properties on light transmission through Arctic sea ice Christian Katlein1,2, Stefanie Arndt1, Marcel Nicolaus1, Donald K. Perovich3, Michael V. Jakuba4, Stefano Suman 4, Stephen Elliott, Louis L.

Whitcomb4,5, Christopher J. McFarland5, Rudiger Gerdes€ 1,2, Antje Boetius1,6, and Cited by: “Extent Of Multi-Year Arctic Sea Ice Is The Highest In A Decade” mind you, but right now. The new Little Ice Age has already started.

In his new book, Evidence-Based Climate Science: ‘Data Opposing CO2 Emissions as the Primary Source of Global Warming, astrophysicist Dr. Habibullo Abdussamatov warns that a new Little Ice Age has begun.

(English) Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic) Abstract [en] Sea ice is a major obstacle for developing oil and gas industries in Arctic regions. To ensure safe and efficient exploration and exploitation of resources in the Arctic Basin, knowledge of the type, thickness, strength and concentration of sea ice is required, especially in areas in which.

Multi-year Arctic ice posts a large gain, peak ice occurred later this year. Antarctica had fourth highest minimum. From NSIDC: Arctic sea ice at fifth lowest annual maximum. Arctic sea ice reached its annual maximum extent on Ma after a brief surge in extent mid-month. The rate of subsea permafrost degradation is a key factor controlling marine methane emissions in the Arctic.

Here, using re-drilled boreholes, the authors show that the ice-bonded permafrost Cited by: Multi-year ice tends to be thicker than new first year ice and, owing to brine rejection, has a higher mechanical strength. As sea ice is more reflective than the surrounding ocean, the existence of multi-year ice through the summer months is an important regulator.

Changed surface properties, such as the increased formation of melt ponds [Roesel and Kaleschke, ], and the shift from multi‐year sea ice to predominantly first‐year sea ice in vast regions of the Arctic [Maslanik et al., ; Tschudi et al., ], led to increased light transmission through the sea ice in spring and summer [Nicolaus Cited by:   The winter ice pack in the Arctic was once dominated by multi-year*, thick ice.

Today, very little old ice remains. This animation shows maps of sea ice age from through the end of October In addition, from the viewpoint of the mechanical flexure of ice floes the minimum size of breakup can be estimated as 14, 24, and 33 m for 1, 2, and 3 m thick ice [Mellor, ].

This implies that sea ice smaller than about 40 m in diameter can scarcely be broken up by:   The Sea Ice Index provides a quick look at Arctic- and Antarctic-wide changes in sea ice. It is a source for consistent, up-to-date sea ice extent and concentration images, in PNG format, and data values, in ASCII text files, from November to the by:   It's not clear what to measure to show/not show the ice is shearing, compacting and diverging more than it did, to what extents this year is natural and unnatural variation off a weak winter, and whether the mechanical properties of the ice have deteriorated.

growing percentage of Arctic sea ice is only one or two years o ld. Less old multi-year ice implies that the ice cover is thinning, which makes it more vulnerable to further melting. • Sincethe length of the melt season for Arctic sea ice has grown by 37 days (see Figure 3).

Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: / On the regional scale, variations in the thermal and mechanical properties of the crust preserve the record of the history of tectonics.

Gravity data, in conjunction with topography, have been applied in increasing detail and refinement to infer the tradeoffs between elastic.

1. Introduction. Although ice can adopt many different crystal structures, at the temperatures and pressures that exist on Earth it exists naturally only as Ice I is simple hexagonal with lattice parameters of a = nm and c = nm and belongs to the space group P6 3 /mmc ().This paper describes techniques that have been used for the Cited by: 1.Sea ice has an intricate structure consisting of platelets of fresh ice with inclusions of brine and air.

The total volume and the distribution of these inclusions strongly affect the optical properties. The physical properties of the ice are highly dependent on the growth conditions and the seasonal evolution of the by: 2.History and explanation of the sea ice interviewing project in the s.

Local interest in the project in Barrow. Sea ice field research in Barrow to measure strength and mechanical properties. Building structures in the sea ice environment, and changes in the ice. Analyzing satellite imagery of the Beaufort Sea and Chukchi Sea.

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